Solutions to Class 10 CBSE English Language and Literature Sample Question Paper 2023-24

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Meenu Sethi
3 months ago

Get detailed solutions and explanations to class 10 CBSE English Language and Literature sample question paper 2023-24 for free, and prepare for your class 10 board exams with ease.

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General Instructions:

  1. The Question Paper contains THREE sections-READING, GRAMMAR & WRITING and LITERATURE.

  2. Attempt questions based on specific instructions for each part.


Reading Comprehension Through Unseen Passages

1. Read the following text.                 10 m
(1) As a high school student, studying poetry can be a rollercoaster ride. This journey is punctuated by moments of profound appreciation for simpler pieces and intermittent frustration with more complex works. Let's be real here - some poems are just plain confusing and no amount of re-reading seems to help decipher the intended meaning. The puzzlement that results from such instances can be both vexing and demotivating. If solving a riddle is what was intended, then  playing Sudoku is a better option. One is led to ponder if obscurity was the goal.

(2) Conversely, some pieces resonate with the reader's soul.  stirring feelings of warmth, happiness, and connection to the world. Often, these compositions centre on themes that are universally understood, such as love, nature, or faith. Being able to actually understand what the poet is trying to say can feel like a little victory and is a welcome relief after grappling with more perplexing poetry.

(3) Then there are poems that are emotionally charged; the ones that make the reader curl up in a ball and cry or jump up and down with joy. One is left in awe of the poet's ability to convey emotion through words. Let’s not forget the downright weird poems. These are the ones that defy categorization and leave the reader to their own devices in attempting to interpret meaning. The author's use of figurative language and unconventional imagery can create a sense of bewilderment that is either intriguing or off-putting. Regardless, the reader can appreciate the uniqueness of the work.

(4) Despite the wide range of emotions and reactions that come with studying poetry, it can be a rewarding pursuit. Not only does reading poetry allow one to appreciate the artistic beauty of the written word but also enables one to develop crucial critical thinking and analytical skills. The process of unlocking a poem's meaning can feel like cracking a code or solving a puzzle but the sense of accomplishment derived from mastering a challenging piece can be deeply gratifying. Finally, impressing an English teacher with a well-analysed poem can be a source of pride and validation.

(5) Overall, studying poetry is like a box of mixed chocolates, you never know what you're going to get. But whether it's complex, emotional, simple, or just downright weird, there's always something to be gained from the experience. So, let's applaud all the poets out there, for making us laugh, cry, scratch our heads, and occasionally feel like a genius.
Created for academic usage/ 414 words

Answer the following questions, based on the passage above.

a. Which of the following statements best describes the author's attitude towards studying poetry?

A. Finds poetry to be a frustrating and meaningless endeavor.

B. Believes that the emotional rollercoaster of studying poetry is not worth the effort.

C. Recognizes the challenges of studying poetry but also acknowledges the rewards it offers.

D. Feels that poetry is too obscure and abstract for the average person to appreciate.

b. What is the tone of the writer in the given lines from paragraph (1)? Rationalise your response in about 40 words.

If solving a riddle is what was intended, then playing Sudoku is a better option. One is led to ponder if obscurity was the goal.

The tone - critical  

c. Complete the sentence appropriately.

The author's use of vivid imagery in the paragraph (3), such as "curl up in a ball and cry" and "jump up and down with joy", greatly affects the reader because ____________.

... it creates a powerful emotional impact and enhances the reader's understanding of the intensity of emotion that can be conveyed through poetry.

d. The passage includes some words that are opposites of each other. From the sets (a)-(e) below, identify two sets of antonyms:

(a) intriguing and off-putting

(b) deciphering and interpreting

(c) appreciate and applaud

(d) simple and challenging

(e) emotions and feelings

e. Complete the sentence appropriately.

We can say that the author's tone becomes more neutral and objective when discussing weird poems, compared to other types of poetry because __________.

the author acknowledges that weird poems can be off-putting, but also appreciates their uniqueness and the challenge they present to readers

f. Based on the reading of the passage, examine, in about 40 words, how studying poetry can be like exploring a new city.

Just as exploring a new city requires an open mind and a willingness to embrace the unexpected, studying poetry requires an openness to different styles and approaches, and a willingness to be challenged and surprised by what you find.

g. What is the message conveyed by Hina's experience, in the following case?

Hina spends hours trying to analyze a poem for her assignment and finally feels a sense of accomplishment and pride, once she understands.

A. Only those with natural talent for poetry should engage with it.

B. Persistence makes studying poetry a rewarding pursuit. 

C. Study of poetry is guaranteed to impress others.

D. The efforts of studying poetry is inversely proportional to the rewards gained.

h. State whether the following lines display an example of a simple / complex / emotionally charged / downright weird, poem.

The sun rises in the east,
A new day begins, a fresh start.
Birds chirp, nature wakes up,
A peaceful feeling in my heart.

2. Read the following text.

(1) Reduction in green areas has caused various environmental problems. People squeezed between concrete structures are looking for various ways to meet their longing for green. One of the ways to do so, is vertical gardens and green walls.  Vertical gardening is a unique method of gardening where plants are grown in a vertical position or upward, rather than in the traditional method of planting them on the ground.

(2) The purpose of vertical gardens and green walls, which arises from the studies of different disciplines  (landscape architects, architects, engineers,  etc.),  is to close the cold image of concrete and increase the visual value. In these systems, nature and structures are integrated, and thus, urban areas and the desired environment have become intertwined.

(3) Vertical garden case studies often show that, though functionality should be in the foreground, when vertical gardens are planned, they are generally made as aesthetic elements in the city's underpasses and  city squares, and decorative elements in residences, without seeking functionality.

(4) Experts support that the visual quality and evaluation of landscape architecture is determined  based on the satisfaction of the users. Hence, a survey questionnaire was prepared for residents of varied age groups from of a metropolitan city. The given Table 1, displays these responses:


Survey statements

Strongly agree




Strongly disagree


Improve quality of life of people in urban areas







Reduce noise pollution







Increase air quality -indoors and outdoors







Reduce energy and water consumption







Positively impact global warming







Have a relaxing and calming effect







Cost too much







Make plants look beautiful







Add naturalness to the environs







Are among the determining factor to visiting a place







Are inconvenient indoors







Can be applied in every place







Have a functional feature







Distract drivers







Funds are best used for social issues






(5) The study acknowledged that vertical gardening has the potential to transform urban spaces into green, sustainable areas, and further research should explore the impact of vertical gardening on the environment and human well-being.

Adapted for academic usage - 2019 case-study -Investigating the vertical garden applications in Turkey 225 words approx.

Answer the following questions, based on the passage above

a. Complete the following analogy appropriately, based on your understanding of paragraphs 1 & 2.

We can say that the situation of people living in concrete structures is comparable with a fish living in a fishbowl, and the need for vertical gardens to the need for decorations in the fishbowl because _______________.

a fish needs decorations such as plants or rocks, to simulate a natural environment and improve its quality of life, people living in urban areas need green spaces such as vertical gardens to improve their physical and mental wellbeing.                                              

b. Fill the blanks with the appropriate option from those given in brackets, based on your understanding of paragraph 2.

The statement that , urban spaces have become more closely connected with the desired natural surroundings through the incorporation of nature and structures in vertical gardens and green walls, is a (fact/ opinion) because it is a (subjective judgement/ objective detail).

c. Justify the following, in about 40 words.

While the survey results suggest that vertical gardens may be effective in improving the quality of life in urban areas, further research and evaluation may be necessary to fully understand their effectiveness and potential drawbacks.

True, because the majority of participants strongly agreed or agreed that vertical gardens can improve the quality of life, increase air quality, and have a relaxing and calming effect. However, the survey does not provide information on the long-term effectiveness of vertical gardens or their potential impact on other aspects of urban life, such as traffic or community engagement.

d. Based on the survey results, which two concerns should a city government, looking to install vertical gardens, address?

A city government looking to install vertical gardens should consider addressing these concerns: 

cost of installation and maintenance [should be reasonable] areas of installation should be where driver distraction is less of an issue.       

e. In Table 1, the statement 3, "Vertical gardens increase air quality - indoors and outdoors," received the most neutral responses from participants, with 51 respondents indicating a neutral stance. State any one inference that can be drawn from this.

Possible inferences:

  • Participants may not be fully informed or aware of the effects of vertical gardens on air quality, which could contribute to the neutral response.

  • The perceived effect of vertical gardens on air quality may vary based on the specific location or environment in which they are installed.

  • It is possible that participants did not have a strong opinion or preference regarding the effect of vertical gardens on air quality, which resulted in a neutral response.

Select the option that correctly displays what ‘intertwined’ signifies. (Reference-Paragraph 2)

A. (i) , (iv) and (v)

B. Only (ii) 

C. Only (iii)

D. (ii) and (v)

b. Infer one benefit and one drawback of vertical gardening, in comparison to other solutions, such as community gardens or parks. (Answer in about 40 words)

Advantages  of vertical gardens over other green spaces-

  • They can be installed in small spaces, making them ideal for urban areas with limited space.

  • They also offer aesthetic and design benefits, as they can be customised to fit specific architectural styles or preferences.

Disadvantages  of vertical gardens over other green spaces-

  • May not provide as much space for outdoor recreation as community gardens or parks do.

  • The cost of installation and maintenance may be higher than for other types of green spaces.

c. Which of the following is the main takeaway from the study mentioned in the passage?

A. Vertical gardening has minimal impact on the environment or human well-being.

B. Vertical gardening is a sustainable practice that can transform urban spaces into green areas.

C. The impact of vertical gardening on the environment and human well-being has already been thoroughly explored.

D. The study needs to  include experts from horticultural firms to offer any recommendations for further research.              1


1. Complete ANY TEN of twelve of the following tasks, as directed.                 1x10

a. Fill in the blank by using the correct form of the word in the bracket, for the given portion of a letter:

Dear Sir

This is with reference to committee’s letter of recommendation that highlights______ (highlight) the nominations for ‘Safe Residential Area’ award for this current year.

b. Read the given sentence from a recipe review article. Identify the error and supply the correction in the sentence.

This delightful recipe must keep your hunger pangs at bay with its balanced spices and oriental flavour.

Use the given format for your response.





c. Abhilash and Neha had a conversation about the inauguration of Neha’s Dance Academy.

Report Abhilash’s question.

Is your best friend helping you in this venture?

Abhilash asked Neha whether / if her best friend was helping her in that venture.

d. Read the dialogue between Shabnam and her mentor, Sara, regarding her summer internship programme.

Sara: Why did you choose to participate in this internship programme?

Shabnam: Ah! I am convinced this programme has the potential to enhance my abilities.

Select the correct option to complete the reporting of the above dialogue.

Sara asked Shabnam _________________________________ in that internship programme. Shabnam sighed and exclaimed that she was convinced that programme had the potential to enhance her abilities.

A. why to choose to participate

B. to choose participation

C. why he had chosen to participate

D. with her choice in participating

e. Fill the blank by choosing the correct option, to complete the concluding line of an issued circular by an Organisation, to its Managers.

A copy of the plan is enclosed and __________ (that/ then/ this) may be communicated to all Team Leaders for compliance.

f. Identify the error and supply correction for the given sentence from a commercial company’s current marketing strategy.

The company aimed at increasing authority in areas frequently visited by the clients.

Use the given format for your response.





Select the option that identifies the error and supplies the correction for the closing line, from an analytical report

In conclusion, this study explores the association among short-sleep pattern and overweight youngsters.

Option No.















g. Complete the given narrative, by filling the blank with the correct option.

The experience of nursing an injured bird left me _____________ grateful for knowing the importance of being kind and compassionate to all creatures.

A. feeling

B. having felt

C. felt

D. feels

h. Report the dialogue between a vendor and his customer, by completing the sentence:

Vendor: It is nice to see you, Sir!

Customer: Yes, indeed! Unlike last month, I have been away for quite some time this month.

The vendor greeted his customer respectfully and mentioned that he was pleased to see him.

The customer answered in the affirmative and explained that ______________________

unlike the previous month, he had been away for quite some time that month.

i. Fill the blank by choosing the correct option to complete the live feed on a school news channel.

Congratulations Change Makers!

The regional competition awards have been announced and our school music club ___________ the first prize.

A. had been won

B. will win

C. was winning

D. has won              

j. Complete the line from a self- awareness song, by filling the blank with the correct option.

The river runs through your veins

The trees and mountains ______ your name

The moon and stars watch over

You’re guiding your way back home To dream the night away.

A. will call

B. call

C. had called

D. calls

k. Identify the error and supply correction for the following note in a passengers’ flight instruction manual:

Note- Passengers will not reach the airport late in order to avoid a fine equivalent to 5% of the basic fare.

Use the given format for your response.






Note : All details presented in the questions are imaginary and created for assessment purpose                

2. A) As Vaishali Nathani of 214, Indrayani Apartments, Vaishali Street, Daipur, you believe that forming Ecology clubs and appointing Eco-minders in your city can aid in the preservation and conservation of nature.

Write a letter to the MLA of your city area, in about 120 words, suggesting the need to form such clubs. Share their importance and implications. Recommend the involvement of resident volunteers for implementation of eco-club activities that nurture and protect the local ecosystem.                 5

124, Indrayani Apartments
Vaishali Street, Daipur 
21 August 2023

The MLA,
Janta House
Rajajipura, Daipur 

Subject: Suggestion Regarding the Need to Form Ecology Clubs

Respected Madam,

With a concern towards the increasing environmental degradation in our city, I write to suggest a possible solution. It is my belief that the formation of Ecology clubs and the appointment of Eco-minders can significantly aid in fostering nature's preservation and conservation.

These clubs can involve resident volunteers in environmental activities such as the creation of bird- houses, native tree plantations, water harvesting, and the establishment of compost piles. These activities not only nurture and protect the local ecosystem, but also lay emphasis on the importance of preserving nature along with creating a sense of responsibility among the residents.

The formation of such clubs could result in reduced pollution levels, increased city biodiversity, and greater sustainable practices, improving overall quality of life and providing a greener, healthier environment.

Madam, I kindly request you to consider this suggestion as a means to better preserve and conserve nature.

Yours sincerely,

Vaishali Nathani.             


B) As Armaan Khan, the School Literary Captain of Ujjwal Academy, Old City, Kiladerabad, you believe that languages can help bridge regional divides and promote unity.

Write a letter to the Editor of a national daily, in about 120 words, suggesting the introduction of an online regional language learning programme managed and run by student councils and language clubs in the city. The programme aims to help residents who have recently relocated to a new region in picking up the local language organically. Share the importance and credibility of such a programme and suggest a feasible way to execute it along with possible activities. 

Ujjwal Academy
Old City, Kilandarabad

30 August 2023

The Editor
India Samachar
Jamnagar, Kilandarabad

Subject: Introduction of Online Regional Language Learning Programme

Dear Sir

Believing that languages can bridge regional divides and promote unity, I propose the introduction of an online regional language learning programme in our city. It aims to assist relocated residents in learning the local language organically, facilitating mutual understanding and fostering a sense of brotherhood.

This programme could be managed and run by student councils and language clubs, with courses offered on weekends, spread over a period of three months. This ensures that it doesn't interrupt participants' work or studies. Activities like language exchange programmes, cultural events, and group discussions on a virtual platform can make it an enjoyable experience.

Publication of this letter on your widely-read platform could bolster public support for this initiative which carries potential for promoting linguistic proficiency and unity in diversity.

Yours sincerely,
Armaan Khan
(Captain, Literary Club) 

5. A) Tsering, of class X, is contesting for the post of the Junior School Captain, in the upcoming student council elections.  Given below is her character traits’ graphic, shared in the public domain, by the school counsellor, for the awareness of student voters, at school. 

All Tsering’s peers have been asked to write a paragraph in about 120 words, analysing these traits, to either support or oppose her candidature. As one of her peers, write this analytical paragraph, by selecting some of the traits that support your analysis.

You may begin like this :

As a responsible student voter, I believe Tesring  possesses / does not possess the necessary traits to be a School Captain.

You may end like this:

For these reasons, I believe she has / does not  have the potential to be a good School Captain and I support / oppose her candidature.

As a responsible student voter, I believe Tsering possesses the necessary traits to be a School Captain. Her ability to maintain a disciplined study routine and focus on excellent outcomes indicates a strong commitment to personal excellence and leadership by example, both essential qualities for the role. Moreover, Tsering's characteristic of helping her peers with both academic and personal difficulties shows empathy and the willingness to support her fellow students, which is crucial for a captain. Her decision-making skills suggest she can handle the responsibilities that come with the position. Even though she is described as an average academic performer, her work ethic and sensitive nature are traits that can inspire and lead a student body effectively. For these reasons, I believe she has the potential to be a good School Captain, and I support her candidature.           

B) As the Captain of the school’s Cultural Club, you have been asked to study the given itinerary provided by a tour-organizing vendor.

A 3N/2D Educational Tour for the Senior School Students: Jabalpur

and Ranha National Park (Vandhya Pradesh)

  • Tour Travel & sightseeing by bus.

  • Accommodation on quad sharing basis.

  • One staff complimentary for every 20 students.

  • Bottled mineral water throughout the tour.

  • Dance Party on 22 November.

  • Insurance policy of  ₹ 20,000/- per head.

  • Provision of Tour Manager’s assistance to all places.


Estimated time of departure

Estimated time of arrival


Time spent at the destination

22 Nov 2023

8:49 am (Nagpur Junction)-8 hrs. 30 min

5:23 pm

Reporting at the hotel

23 Nov 2023

9:00 am (hotel)

10:00 am

Bhawartal Garden

1 hr.

11:00 am (garden)

11:40 am

Bhedaghat Dhuandhar Falls

1 hr.

12:40 pm (falls)

1:00 pm

Lunch (nearby restaurant)

1 hr.

2:00 pm (restaurant)

2:15 pm

Marble Rocks Cable car tour

1 hr. 30 mins

3:45 pm (Marble Rocks)

4:45 pm

Rani Durgavati Museum

1 hr. 30 mins

6:15 pm (museum)

7:00 pm

Back to the hotel

24 Nov 2023

5:30 am (hotel)- 170 kms- 4 hrs. drive

9:30 am

Ranha Tiger Reserve

7 hrs.

4:30 pm (Tiger Reserve)

9:00 pm

Back to the hotel

25 Nov 2023

7:54 am (Jabalpur Railway station)- 8 hrs. 45 min

4:21 pm

Nagpur Railway Junction

Analyse this itinerary to either approve or reject the tour proposal, while focusing on the students’ safety, interest, and physical wellness. Write this analytical paragraph in about 120 words, by selecting features that support your analysis.

You may begin like this :

A thorough analysis of the itinerary provided by the tour organizing vendor reveals that the tour proposal should be accepted / rejected.

You may end like this:

Therefore, the tour proposal for the educational trip should be approved / rejected.

A thorough analysis of the itinerary provided by the tour organizing vendor reveals that the tour proposal should be accepted. It incorporates several educational tours like visiting the Rani Durgavati Museum, Bhedaghat Dhuandhar Falls, and Marble Rocks, which provide the students with exposure to history, nature, and culture. The visit to Bhawartal Garden and the Kanha Tiger Reserve will allow students to connect with nature and wildlife. The entire tour includes a tour manager's assistance for the students' safety and security. The provision of insurance cover and complimentary staff for every 20 students further adds to the safety measures. The accommodation on a sharing basis encourages camaraderie among students and the dance party on 22 November adds an element of fun and relaxation. Therefore, the tour proposal for the educational trip should be approved.


6. Read the given extracts and answer the questions for ANY ONE of the two, given.                    5
A. The question he tried to answer was simple: What is the purpose of the twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa? 
“Everyone assumed the spots were just ornamental,” Ebright said. 
“But Dr Urquhart didn’t believe it.”  To find the answer, Ebright and another excellent science student first had to build a device that showed that the spots were producing a hormone necessary for the butterfly’s full development. This project won Ebright first place in the county fair and entry into the International Science and Engineering Fair. There he won third place for zoology. He also got a chance to work during the summer at the entomology laboratory of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. (The Making of a Scientist)

i. State any one inference about Dr Urquhart from the given context:

Everyone assumed the spots were just ornamental,” Ebright said. 

“But Dr Urquhart didn’t believe it.”  

(Any one) We can infer that

  • Dr Urquhart was a scientist who questioned assumptions

  • He was willing to investigate alternative explanations for phenomena 

  • Dr Urquhart was a curious / open-minded scientist

  • He was not content to simply accept conventional wisdom 

ii. State TRUE or FALSE.

None of the terms (a) -(d) below, can be applied to the question - What is the purpose of the twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa?

(a) A hypothesis  - a proposed explanation for a phenomenon 

(b) An assumption - something that is taken for granted or assumed to be true without proof 

(c) A premise - a proposition that forms the basis of an argument

(d) A theory - a well-substantiated explanation for a natural phenomenon

c. Ebright's approach towards finding the purpose of the gold spots on a monarch pupa was highly effective. Elaborate in about 40 words, with reference to the extract.

Ebright's approach was highly effective in finding the purpose of the gold spots on a monarch pupa. By building a device that showed that the spots were producing a hormone necessary for the butterfly’s full development, he was able to provide evidence that contradicted the prevailing assumption that the spots were purely ornamental. This earned him recognition in science fairs and provided him with opportunities to work at research laboratories.

d. Which phrase would correctly substitute 'a chance' , in the given sentence from the extract. 

He also got a chance to work during the summer at the entomology laboratory of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. 
an opportunity


B. LOMOV : It's cold... I'm trembling all over, just as if I’d got an examination before me. The great thing is , I must have my mind made up. If I give myself time to think,  to hesitate, to talk a lot, to look for an ideal, or for real love, then I'll never get married. Brr...It’s cold! Natalya Stepanovna is an excellent housekeeper, not bad-looking, well-educated. What more do I want? But I'm getting a noise in my ears from excitement. (Drinks) And it’s impossible for me not to marry. In the first place,  I'm already 35— a critical age, so to speak. In the second place, I ought to lead a quiet and regular life. I suffer from palpitations, I'm excitable and always getting awfully upset; at this very moment my lips are trembling, and there’s a twitch in my right eyebrow. (The Proposal)

a. Which of the following is NOT a reason why Lomov thinks he must marry?

A. He is already 35 years old.

B. He suffers from palpitations.

C. He is excitable and easily upset.

D. He is in love with Natalya.

b. Why is it fair to say that Lomov's tone, when he says "What more do I want?", is uncertain and questioning? Answer in about 40 words.

Lomov's tone when he says "What more do I want?" is uncertain and questioning because he is trying to convince himself that Natalya Stepanovna is a suitable match for him, but at the same time, he seems to be struggling with doubts and fears. His tone suggests that he is trying to reassure himself that he has made the right decision, but he is not entirely convinced.

c. Read the following descriptions (a)-(c) and identify which one correctly corresponds to the extract.

(a) A debate is a formal discussion on a particular topic, usually with two or more people presenting different viewpoints and arguments.

(b) A soliloquy is a speech given by a character alone on stage, which reveals their innermost thoughts and feelings to the audience.

(c) An aside is a brief comment or remark made by a character directly to the audience, which is not intended to be heard by other characters on stage.

d. If an actor were to enact this extract, what would he be required to focus on, while modulating his voice?

The actor would be required to convey Lomov's nervousness and excitement through his voice modulation.

4. Read the given extracts and answer the questions for ANY ONE of the two, given. 

A. But if it had to perish twice, 
I think I know enough of hate 
To say that for destruction ice 
Is also great 
And would suffice. (Fire and Ice)

a. Fill the blank with one word.

When the speaker says that ice could also bring about the end of the world , he refers to __________ as the means for destruction. 

hatred/ indifference / bitterness / apathy / detachment / rigidity            

b. What does the speaker's alignment with those who favour ice, suggest?

The speaker's alignment with those who favour ice suggests that they have seen the destructive consequences of a lack of empathy and emotional connection.

c. Which of the following best describes the speaker's attitude towards destruction caused by ice?

A. Indifferent

B. Fearful

C. Dismissive

D. Respectful

d. Comment on the poet’s use of language in these lines.

The language used in these lines is simple and straightforward. The words and phrases are easy to understand and the poem is written in a conversational tone. Despite its simplicity, however, the poem carries a profound message about the destructive power of both fire and ice, and the inevitability of destruction. The use of simple language in this context makes the message more accessible to a wider audience and adds to the poem's overall impact. 

B. The fog comes 
on little cat feet.  It
sits looking  over
harbour and city  on
silent haunches  and
then moves on. (Fog)

e. In what way does the language used in this poem challenge traditional ideas of what poetry should be?

Unlike traditional poetry that often relies on complex rhyme schemes and metaphors, this poem uses simple, everyday language to create a vivid picture in the reader's mind to create a powerful and evocative mood.

f. What is the significance of the use of the word "little" to describe the fog in the poem and how does this word choice contribute to the overall mood and tone of the poem? Answer in about 40 words

The word "little" used to describe the fog in the poem suggests the subtle and quiet nature of the fog. The word "little" also evokes a sense of innocence and vulnerability, as if the fog is a harmless creature moving through the city. This contributes to the overall mood and tone of the poem, which is calm and peaceful, with a touch of mystery.

g. Complete the sentence with the appropriate option.

The lines from the poem tell us that the city is ______.

A. hilly

B. coastal

C. industrial

D. under-developed

h. Identify the type of imagery used in the lines of the poem.

visual /animal imagery

5. Answer ANY FOUR of the following five questions, in about 40-50 words. 

a. Justify the opinion that the traditional baker and his bread play a significant role in the cultural and social fabric of Goan society. (Glimpses of India-I)

The traditional baker, known as ‘pader’ in Goa, and his bread play a crucial role in Goan society. Bread-making, a legacy from the Portuguese days, continues to be a vital profession, with bakers often carrying forward family businesses, establishing their economic stability and social standing. Bread is embedded in Goan culture and festivities, with sweet bread a customary part of marriage gifts and bread-based dishes like sandwiches, cakes, and bolinhas central to numerous celebrations. Thus, bakers and their bread have significant social, cultural, and economic importance in Goan society, embodying a cherished part of its heritage and everyday life.

b. How does Leslie Norris use vivid imagery and metaphorical language in A Tiger in the Zoo, to effectively depict the confinement and oppression, experienced by the captive tiger.

Leslie Norris employs vivid imagery and metaphorical language, creating a stirring depiction of the tiger’s confinement and oppression. Norris contrasts the tiger’s natural environment, described as stalking “through long grass” and “snarling around houses”, to the unnatural confinement of its “concrete cell”. The tiger’s “quiet rage” and indifference to visitors demonstrate its frustration and despair. The final lines poignantly highlight its longing for freedom as it gazes at the “brilliant stars”. Norris judiciously uses these linguistic tools, painting not only the physical space but also the psychological state of the captive beast.

c. Explain how the description of the devastation caused by the hailstorm reflects the sadness within Lencho, in A Letter to God? 
Refer to the given lines, from the text - 

Not a leaf remained on the trees. The corn was totally destroyed. The flowers were gone from the plants. Lencho’s soul was filled with sadness.  

The devastation caused by the hailstorm reflects Lencho’s sadness through a parallel with his loss. The barren trees, the destroyed corn, and the disappeared flowers symbolize Lencho’s despair and loss of hope. They represent his worries about the subsequent year’s food and livelihood. Thus, Lencho’s inner turmoil and sadness after the destruction aligns with the emptiness and havoc wreaked by the hailstorm.

d. Kitty was a trusted friend to Anne. Elaborate. (From the Diary of Anne Frank)

Kitty, the personified diary of Anne, was trusted confidante for her, provided a space for her to express and unburden her clean and hidden emotions freely. It also served as a form of therapy during her loneliness and isolation. Offering comfort and companionship, Kitty also granted her a sense of privacy and security, where Anne could pour out her innermost thoughts without any fear of judgement or ridicule.

e. How does Ogden Nash's The Tale of Custard the Dragon , challenge the notion that individuals should conform to societal expectations?

Ogden Nash's "The Tale of Custard the Dragon" challenges societal expectations through its characters. Belinda, who exudes bravery typically associated with masculinity, and Custard, a dragon who openly expresses fear, subvert traditional gender roles. The poem encourages individual authenticity over societal conformity and celebrates the unique strengths each character possesses, evident when shy Custard bravely defends Belinda.

6. Answer ANY TWO of the following three questions, in about 40-50 words.

a. The story, A Triumph of Surgery  is a powerful example of the importance of saying “no”. Explain.

The story, A Triumph of Surgery, underscores the importance of saying "no"** for beneficial outcomes. When Mrs. Pumphrey could not refuse Tricki's overfeeding, the dog fell seriously ill. Although uncomfortable, Mr. Herriot's persistent denial towards Mrs. Pumphrey's indulgences** and enforcing a strict diet and exercise regimen proves essential, transforming Tricki into a healthy dog. Therefore, the story shows that saying "no" can sometimes lead to the best results.

b. How does education play a transformative role in Bholi's life? (Bholi)

Education provides Bholi with self-confidence and empowers her to resist societal pressures, enabling her to reject an oppressive marriage proposal. It invokes a sense of self-worth, fueling her decision to dedicate her life to serving her parents and educating others. Indeed, education transforms Bholi from a marginalized figure to a symbol of resistance and empowerment

c. The various elements of Robert Arthur's writing style work together to create a sense of tension, uncertainty, and suspense, well-suited to the mystery and suspense genre of the story, The Midnight Visitor. Comment, with reference to any one element.

The skilful use of dialogue by Robert Arthur significantly contributes to The Midnight Visitor's suspenseful tone. Arthur fills the conversation between Ausable and Max with truth stretching and misdirection,  creating a sense of ambiguity and mystery. Such dialogue leaves the reader questioning Max's genuine motives and plans. This technique maintains a constant state of uncertainty and tension throughout the story, getting the reader invested in the unravelling narrative.

7. Answer ANY ONE of the following two questions, in about 100-120 words.

a. You have been asked to present an evaluation of the approaches of the mothers of both, the baby seagull and Amanda, towards helping their children. Write this presentation draft including your insights, in about 120 words, comparing the approaches of both parents.

You may begin this way:

One acknowledges that both parents, Amanda’s mother and the baby seagull’s mother both....however, ... (Reference -Amanda! & His First Flight)

Both the baby seagull’s mother and Amanda’s mother indisputably have their children’s best interests at heart. However, their strategies in guiding their young are distinctly different. The seagull’s mother adopts a seemingly harsh but effective approach, compelling her fearful child to explore his latent ability by leveraging his basic instinct for survival. However, this method, while forceful, was potentially dangerous and could be perceived as disregarding her offspring's emotions. On the flip side, Amanda’s mother opts for a relentless approach, scrutinising and criticising Amanda's every action. This approach, although well-intended, results in a high-pressure environment for Amanda, pushing her into a realm of fantasy as an escape from constant criticism. Therefore, while the seagull's mother encourages independence and courage in her offspring, Amanda's mother stifles her child's growth with her perpetual criticism. The stark contrast in their approaches exposes the broad spectrum of parental attitudes and prompts reflection on balancing discipline and sensitivity to nurture a well-rounded individual.


(B) You have been chosen to address a student gathering from the neighbourhood schools, to speak on the resilience of human spirit required to transcend discrimination. Prepare the speech draft in not more than 120 words, with reference to the commonality of themes in Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom and The Trees by Adrienne Rich.

You may begin this way:

Good morning, everyone. Today, I'd like to discuss two pieces of literature that offer a powerful insight into the resilience of the human spirit required to transcend discrimination.

You may end this way.

To conclude, I’d like to say that ... Thank you

Good morning everyone. I wish to talk about a shared theme in two powerful pieces of literature – Nelson Mandela's 'Long Walk to Freedom' and Adrienne Rich's 'The Trees' . Both of these eminent works underscore the resilience required to transcend discrimination. Mandela's struggle against racial discrimination led him on a long path to freedom. Similarly, Rich uses the symbol of trees cut down, yet growing again, like oppressed and marginalised women rising against their circumstances to stand equal in society. The struggle and sacrifices put forth to achieve equality resonate in both pieces, emphasising that freedom involves breaking not just physical, but also mental chains. Despite the odds, the resilience of the human spirit, as seen in Mandela's indomitable determination and in the perseverance of nature, stands out. To conclude, the messages from both these works serve as powerful reminders of our potential to rise above discrimination and work towards a more equitable world. Thank you.

8. Answer ANY ONE of the following two questions, in about 100-120 words

(A) Imagine that M. Loisel, from The Necklace by Guy de Maupassant, writes a diary entry, exploring the theme of class and social status, and the nature of social mobility, in the context of his own experience. Write this diary entry , as M. Loisel, in about 120 words.

23rd June 1888

My mind seems ever embroiled in the seeming inequities of our societal structure. On this late hour, I am perturbed by the dominance of one's financial standing in determining their social status. My dear wife, Matilda craved for material commodities and misplaced status among the opulent. An aspiration seeded by the inherent societal expectations. The loss of the borrowed necklace, an object symbolic of wealth and distinction, has cast us into a decade of hardship.** The harsh reality of our futile efforts to elevate our social standing is a relentless reminder. The very system we live in makes the notion of social mobility an elusive dream. It is evident now, our pursuit for an elevated social status has cost us dearly and has proven to be a disheartening illusion.

-M. Loisel


(B) A character arc is the transformation or development of a character throughout a story and refers to the changes a character undergoes as a result of their experiences, challenges, and interactions with other characters. 

In the light of the above information, trace the character arc of the thief in Ruskin Bond’s  The Thief’s Story, in about 120 words.

In "The Thief's Story" by Ruskin Bond, the thief's character arc develops significantly. Initially, he is depicted as a skilled, deceptive criminal who constantly changes his identity to evade the law. His aim is solely personal gain, without any remorse for his actions. However, things change when he encounters Anil. Intriguingly, he plucks up the courage to offer his services to Anil, despite being aware that Anil cannot pay him. As he works and lives with Anil, who treats him with trust and kindness, and even teaches him to read and write, the thief begins to empathize and care. The pinnacle of his transformation comes when he steals money from Anil, but is overwhelmed by guilt and returns it, realizing the importance of trust over money. His conflict and ultimate choice reflect his evolution from a habitual criminal to a sensitive individual.


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