Presentation of data  Class 11 Economics  Chapter 4  Notes, NCERT Solutions & Extra Questions
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Notes  Presentation of data  Class 11 Statistics For Economics  Economics
The Ultimate Guide to Presentation of Data Notes for Class 11
Introduction
Data is the cornerstone of analysis, research, and decisionmaking processes. Presenting data in a comprehensible and concise manner is crucial, especially for class 11 students who are delving deeper into the realms of statistics and economics. This guide aims to provide comprehensive notes on the presentation of data, covering various methods including textual, tabular, and diagrammatic presentations.
Understanding Data Presentation
What is Data Presentation?
Data presentation involves displaying collected information in a structured format to make it easier to interpret and analyse. Effective data presentation enhances understanding and communication of the underlying patterns and relationships within the data. Class 11 students often encounter voluminous data sets, and mastering data presentation is essential for honing analytical skills.
Textual Presentation of Data
Textual or Descriptive Data Presentation
In textual presentation, data is described within the text itself. This method is suitable when the amount of data is not extensive.
Advantages:
 Simplicity: Easy to create and understand.
 Emphasis: Can highlight specific points effectively.
Disadvantages:
 Timeconsuming: Reading through the text to comprehend data can be laborious.
 Limited scope: Not suitable for large data sets.
Tabular Presentation of Data
Components of a Table
Tabular presentation organises data into rows and columns, enabling quick comparison and analysis. A wellstructured table includes the following components:
 Table Number: For identification.
 Title: Describes the content of the table.
 Captions or Column Headings: Explain figures in the columns.
 Stubs or Row Headings: Designate the rows.
 Body of the Table: Contains the actual data.
 Unit of Measurement: Specifies the units used.
 Source: Indicates where the data is from.
 Note: Explains any specific features of the data.
Types of Table Classifications
 Qualitative Classification: Organised by attributes such as social or physical status.
 Quantitative Classification: Based on measurable characteristics like age or income.
 Temporal Classification: Data classified according to time periods.
 Spatial Classification: Data sorted by geographical locations.
Diagrammatic Presentation of Data
Diagrammatic presentation offers a visual representation of data, which is often more intuitive and easier to understand compared to textual or tabular forms.
Types of Diagrams
Geometric Diagrams

Bar Diagram:
 Simple Bar Diagram: Display singlecategory data with equispaced and equalwidth bars.
 Multiple Bar Diagram: Compare multiple sets of data.
 Component Bar Diagram: Show the parts of a whole.

Pie Diagram:
 Circular chart divided into sectors, each representing a proportion of the total.
Frequency Diagrams
 Histogram: A series of adjacent rectangles, each representing a frequency of a class interval.
 Frequency Polygon: A line diagram created by joining the midpoints of the tops of the rectangles in a histogram.
 Frequency Curve: A smooth curve joining the points of a frequency polygon.
 Ogive: A cumulative frequency curve.
StepbyStep Guides
Creating Tables
 Identify the data to be presented.
 Determine the number of rows and columns.
 Allocate table numbers and titles.
 Fill in the data in an organised manner.
 Include units of measurement and sources if applicable.
Drawing Bar Diagrams
 Choose the data categories.
 Determine the scale and intervals.
 Draw bars for each category with appropriate heights.
Making Pie Charts
 Convert data values into percentages.
 Determine the angle for each category by multiplying the percentage by 3.6.
 Draw a circle and divide it into sectors according to the calculated angles.
Developing Frequency Diagrams
 Organise data into a frequency distribution.
 Draw the horizontal axis (class intervals) and vertical axis (frequencies).
 For histograms, draw rectangles. For polygons and curves, plot points and join them.
Flowchart for Creating a Table
graph LR
A[Identify Data] > B[Determine Rows and Columns]
B > C[Assign Table Number and Title]
C > D[Fill in Data]
D > E[Include Units and Source]
Common Mistakes and Tips
Common Mistakes in Data Presentation
 Omitting units of measurement.
 Inconsistent scales in diagrams.
 Lack of clarity in table titles and captions.
Tips for Accurate and Effective Data Presentation
 Consistency: Use consistent scales and units.
 Clarity: Ensure titles, captions, and labels are clear and concise.
 Simplicity: Avoid overcomplicating the presentation with too much detail.
Conclusion
Mastering the presentation of data is an essential skill for class 11 students, aiding in clear and effective communication of information. Whether through textual descriptions, tabular formats, or visual diagrams, choosing the appropriate method enhances the clarity and impact of data insights. By following the guidelines and avoiding common pitfalls, students can make their data presentations meaningful, comprehensive, and insightful.
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Extra Questions  Presentation of data  Statistics For Economics  Economics  Class 11
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Ask Chatterbot AINCERT Solutions  Presentation of data  Statistics For Economics  Economics  Class 11
Bar diagram is a.................
(i) onedimensional diagram
(ii) twodimensional diagram
(iii) diagram with no dimension
(iv) none of the above
(i) onedimensional diagram
Data represented through a histogram can help in finding graphically the
(i) mean
(ii) mode
(iii) median
(iv) all the above
The correct answer is:
(ii) mode
Ogives can be helpful in locating graphically the
(i) mode
(ii) mean
(iii) median
(iv) none of the above
Ogives can be helpful in locating graphically the:
(iii) median
Data represented through arithmetic line graph help in understanding
(i) long term trend
(ii) cyclicity in data
(iii) seasonality in data
(iv) all the above
(iv) all the above
Width of bars in a bar diagram need not be equal (True/False).
False. The width of bars in a bar diagram should be equal to ensure accurate visual comparison of data.
Width of rectangles in a histogram should essentially be equal (True/ False).
True.
Histogram can only be formed with continuous classification of data (True/False).
True. A histogram is used to represent the frequency distribution of continuous data. It requires the data to be grouped into continuous intervals or bins.
Histogram and column diagram are the same method of presentation of data. (True/False)
False.
A histogram is used for continuous data divided into intervals, while a column diagram (or bar chart) is used for categorical data.
Mode of a frequency distribution can be known graphically with the help of histogram. (True/False)
True.
Median of a frequency distribution cannot be known from the ogives. (True/False)
False. The median of a frequency distribution can be determined from the ogives by finding the point where the cumulative frequency curve intersects the horizontal line at half the total frequency.
What kind of diagrams are more effective in representing the following?
(i) Monthly rainfall in a year
(ii) Composition of the population of Delhi by religion
(iii) Components of cost in a factory
(i) Monthly rainfall in a year: Line graph or bar chart
(ii) Composition of the population of Delhi by religion: Pie chart
(iii) Components of cost in a factory: Bar chart or pie chart
How does the procedure of drawing a histogram differ when class intervals are unequal in comparison to equal class intervals in a frequency table?
When class intervals are unequal in a frequency table, the heights of the bars in the histogram are adjusted to ensure accurate representation of the data. Here’s how the procedure differs:
Equal Class Intervals:
The height of each bar represents the frequency of the data within that class interval.
Bar height is directly proportional to the frequency.
Unequal Class Intervals:
Adjust the height of each bar to reflect the frequency density, calculated as frequency divided by class width.
Bar height = (Frequency) / (Class Width).
This adjustment ensures that the area of each bar represents the frequency.
This normalization ensures that the visual representation accurately reflects the distribution of the data.
The Indian Sugar Mills Association reported that, ‘Sugar production during the first fortnight of December 2001 was about 3,87,000 tonnes, as against 3,78,000 tonnes during the same fortnight last year (2000).
The offtake of sugar from factories during the first fortnight of December 2001 was 2,83,000 tonnes for internal consumption and 41,000 tonnes for exports as against 1,54,000 tonnes for internal consumption and nil for exports during the same fortnight last season.’
(i) Present the data in tabular form.
(ii) Suppose you were to present these data in diagrammatic form which of the diagrams would you use and why?
(iii) Present these data diagrammatically.
(i) Data in Tabular Form
Time Period  Sugar Production  Internal Consumption  Exports 

Dec 1st15th, 2000  3,78,000 tonnes  1,54,000 tonnes  0 tonnes 
Dec 1st15th, 2001  3,87,000 tonnes  2,83,000 tonnes  41,000 tonnes 
(ii) Suggested Diagrammatic Form
I would use Bar Graphs because they effectively compare quantities between different categories or time periods, making it easier to visually distinguish the differences in production, internal consumption, and exports for the respective years.
(iii) Diagrammatic Presentation
The following table shows the estimated sectoral real growth rates (percentage change over the previous year) in GDP at factor cost.
Year  Agriculture and allied sectors  Industry  Services 

1994–95  5.0  9.2  7.0 
1995–96  –0.9  11.8  10.3 
1996–97  9.6  6.0  7.1 
1997–98  –1.9  5.9  9.0 
1998–99  7.2  4.0  8.3 
1999–2000  0.8  6.9  8.2 
Represent the data as multiple time series graphs.
a
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