Question

Why do all the elements of the same group have similar properties? How will the tendency to gain electrons change as we go from left to right across a period? Why?

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Answer

Elements in the Same Group:

  1. Similar Properties in the Same Group:
    • Elements located within the same group of the periodic table exhibit similar properties. This similarity arises because these elements have the same number of electrons in their outermost electron shell (also known as the valence shell). This consistent electron configuration is responsible for the analogous chemical behavior among elements of the same group.

Tendency to Gain Electrons Across a Period:

  1. Change in Metallic and Non-Metallic Characters:

    • When moving from left to right across a period in the periodic table, there is a notable shift in character. The metallic character decreases while the non-metallic character increases. This trend signifies a transformation from metallic (which tend to lose electrons) towards non-metallic elements (which tend to gain electrons).
  2. Explanation of Electron-Gaining Tendency:

    • Since metals have a propensity to lose electrons and non-metals have a tendency to gain electrons, it follows that the tendency to gain electrons increases as you move from the left side to the right side of a period. This is due to the increasing electronegativity and the filling of the p-orbitals as non-metals are more inclined to complete their valence shell by gaining additional electrons.

Thus, the systematic change in electron gain tendency across a period highlights the periodic trends that are pivotal to understanding the behavior of elements.


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