Question

Dense white fumes are obtained when a jar of $\mathrm{HCl}$ gas is inverted over a jar of ammonia gas. Give reasons.

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Answer

When a jar containing hydrogen chloride ($\mathrm{HCl}$) gas is inverted over a jar of ammonia ($\mathrm{NH_3}$) gas, dense white fumes are observed. These fumes are comprised of ammonium chloride ($\mathrm{NH_4Cl}$) particles, which are solid and suspended in the air. This happens because $\mathrm{HCl}$ and $\mathrm{NH_3}$ gases react to form the solid ammonium chloride upon coming into contact, manifesting as dense white fumes.


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