Question

Both dative and covalent bonds are present in:

A) $BF_{3} \cdot NH_{3}$
B) $CH_{3}Cl_{2}$
C) $C_{2}H_{4}$
D) $CH_{3}NH_{2}$

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Answer

The correct answer is A: $BF_{3} \cdot NH_{3}$.

Explanation:

Boron trifluoride ($BF_{3}$) forms a dative (coordinate) bond with ammonia ($NH_{3}$). In this complex:

  • Boron ($B$), having an empty orbital, can accept a lone pair of electrons.
  • Nitrogen ($N$) in ammonia has a lone pair of electrons that it can donate.
  • This donation of a lone pair from $NH_{3}$ to $BF_{3}$ establishes a dative bond.

Covalent bonds are also present within each molecule:

  • $BF_{3}$ has covalent bonds between boron and fluorine atoms.
  • $NH_{3}$ possesses covalent bonds between nitrogen and hydrogen atoms.

Thus, both dative and covalent bonds are present in $BF_{3} \cdot NH_{3}$.


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